Citizenship Education Textbooks


Analysis of Chinese and Taiwanese citizenship education textbooks, percentage of textbook dedicated to a subject area.

Main Categories Sub-categories China Taiwan
Self-oriented values or personal virtues General personal well-being 1.91 0.34
Intellect and cognitive strengths: love of learning, curiosity, creativity, critical thinking/judgement, respect truth and reasoning, knowledgeable, rationality, science, logic and technology, problem-solving, decision-making 7.42 6.44
Spiritual: faith & higher purposes about the meaning of life 1.8 0
Emotional: hope and optimism, zest, courage 4.34 1.36
Competence/effectiveness: diligence, efficiency, perseverance, decisiveness, prudence, independence, prompt, concentration, realism, leadership, progressive, adventure, acquisitive of opportunity, time-management, self-determination or foresightedness, confidence 14.3 3.05
Other 2.86 5.43
Subtotal 40.15 18.65
Small group-oriented or interpersonal morality General values towards others: kindness/ benevolence, respect others, tolerance, empathy, sincerity, modesty, courtesy, broad-mindedness, generosity, altruism, helpfulness, harmony, cooperativeness, communicate, conflict resolution, trust 11.76 16.95
Kinship: familial love, parent-child, marital, sibling, and relatives 2.12 4.41
Teachers/elders: respect and obedience 0.42 0.68
Friendship, neighborhood, small groups and class 1.88 2.04
Section total 16.21 24.08
Society-oriented values General political ideas concerning human rights: equality, liberty, justice, peace, human rights, respect, and values cultural diversities 1.91 5.76
Social order: observation of social norms or laws/law-abiding behaviors 5.61 5.75
Social responsibilities: social consciousness and willingness to serve/volunteering, active involvement in public affairs, for public good/public spiritedness 5.19 6.78
Local community or native place 0.74 1.02
Proper exercise of rights, eliminate oppression and deprivation, defending justice and protection of the rights of the underprivileged 3.5 5.08
Gender 0.64 1.69
Consumer ethics 0.32 1.02
Media ethics 0.11 0.34
School 0.64 1.02
Labor habits or work ethics 1.38 1.69
Solidarity and social cohesiveness 0.21 0.34
Economic values: entrepreneurship 0.42 0.34
Others: adoption to society 1.17 2.37
Section total 21.95 33.21
Nation-oriented values Patriotism: loyalty to, love and support for country & national security, achievement & prosperity; readiness to protect one’s country or make contributions, help enhance country’s greatness and glory 6.99 2.03
Love one’s fellow nationals/people 1.38 0.34
Fond of national history and culture 1.69 3.39
Recognition/admiration of government’s work, support the authority, or adoration of particular political ideologies 3.07 0
Democracy: participation in public affairs, critic of the state, discernment/deliberativeness, election, monitoring the government 3.07 9.83
Others 0.32 0
Section total 16.52 15.59
International-oriented values Global concern and betterment of human kind: world perspective and international issues, Cosmopolitanism 0.85 1.69
Interdependence/mutual cooperation 0.32 0.34
Appreciation of foreign cultures/recognition of cultural diversities 0.42 1.02
Environmental conservation/substantial development/ecological morality 2.54 5.08
Others 0.32 0
Section total 4.45 8.13
Other 0.75 0.34

Data in this table is from "Discourses of citizenship compared: Junior high school knowledge in Mainland China and Taiwan" in Issues and Studies Volume 50, Issue 1 from 2014. I’ve abridged the data a little bit, and corrected an error where the data in 2 cells were swapped.